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4/11/24
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Japan's Sakoku Period

In Our Time

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- Japan's transition from chaos to peace in the 17th century, known as pax Tokugawa, was pivotal, marked by the centralization efforts of the Tokugawa shogunate and the establishment of stability through strict control over trade and societal order.

- The Sakoku policy of Japan's isolation was a strategic move by the Tokugawa shogunate to maintain control by regulating trade and limiting the influence of potentially destabilizing foreign ideas and religions, such as Christianity.

- Despite Sakoku, Japan experienced an infiltration of Western ideas and technology, notably in medicine and astronomy. This reveals that Japan was not as isolated as previously thought, with Dutch traders opening a window to the West.

- The enforcement of Sakoku in the 1630s was characterized by the construction of Dejima and stringent maritime restrictions, illustrating Japan's deliberate efforts to sequester itself from European colonialism and missionary influence while maintaining limited foreign contact through the Dutch.

- Commodore Matthew Perry's "gunboat diplomacy" in 1854 was a catalyst for ending Japan's isolation. It forced Japan to sign unequal treaties with Western powers, sparking a period of rapid modernization and drastically altering Japan's trajectory towards being a major global player.

- The Tokugawa shogunate's downfall was precipitated by internal strife and political challenges, leading to the restoration of imperial rule under the Meiji Emperor and the start of Japan's modernization era.

- Tokugawa Japan's self-sufficiency focus, skepticism towards trade, and Confucian-influenced view that merchants were an unnecessary part of society highlights the significant shift in Japanese economic policies following the forced opening to Western trade in the mid-19th century.

- Western medical knowledge, disseminated by doctors from the Dutch East India Company, along with a growing interest in Western technologies and ideas among Japanese scholars, laid the groundwork for the later rapid modernization of Japan during the Meiji Restoration.